Growth Monitoring With Submonolayer Sensitivity Via Real-Time Thermal-Conductance Measurements; P. Ferrando-Villalba et al.; Phys. Rev. Applied 12, 014007. Growth monitoring during the early stages of vapor deposition is of prime importance to understand the growth process, the microstructure, and thus the overall layer properties. We demonstrate that phonons can be used as an extremely sensitive probe to monitor the real-time evolution of film microstructure during growth. For that purpose, a silicon nitride membrane-based sensor is fabricated to measure the in-plane thermal conductivity of thin film samples. Operating with the 3ω-Völklein method at low frequencies, the sensor shows an exceptional resolution down to Δ(κ⋅t)=0.065W/mKnm, enabling accurate measurements even in poor conductive samples.
Electric Field Gradients and Bipolar Electrochemistry effects on Neural Growth: A finite element study on immersed electroactive conducting electrode materials; Ll. Abad et al.; Electrochimica Acta. Implantable electrodes act with direct electrical contact although recent work has shown that electrostimulation is also possible through non-contact wireless settings, through the generation of dipoles at the borders of the material by bipolar electrochemistry. Finite element studies shown here with the same configuration that the experimental processes described, evidence voltage profiles in qualitative agreement with known bipolar effects, although with a clear difference between intercalation materials and metals. These observations may explain the differences in neural cell growth observed for various substrate material.